• 10 September 2013

Michael H. Hart Section 1 – Natural selection The theory of evolution is the central, unifying principle of modern biology. Although entire books have been devoted to explaining the theory in detail, its funda- mental ideas can be summarized briefly. 1) The individual members of any given species vary considerably from each other, and some of that variation is due to genetic factors. Furthermore, new heritable traits are constantly arising because

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Philosophy of History
  • 2 Oktober 2012

By Paul Newall History may not seem to have much to do with philosophy but—just as we have already seen with science, politics and art—it relies on philosophical assumptions and concepts as much as any other subject. In this discussion we'll introduce some of the philosophical issues within history and hence try to gain a deeper appreciation of it. First, however, we need to know what we're dealing with. What is History? This may seem like a

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Characteristics of a Historian
  • 14 Mei 2012

A competent historian should strive to have the following characteristics:  A zeal for truth, which postulates sincerity and frankness in stating the facts, however much feelings may be hurt. Cicero said, "It is the first law of history that it dare say nothing that is false nor fear to utter anything that is true, in order that there may be no suspicion either of partiality or hostility in the writer." Additionally, British historian Lord Acton

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History as Science
  • 14 Mei 2012

Is history a science? The disciplines concerned with man in his social relations are known as social sciences and History is very clearly considered to be part of the social sciences. The difference of opinion is probably more apparent than real. The discussion practically revolves around the meaning one chooses to attach to the term science. In practically all instances where the claim of history to be a science is denied, the denial is based on

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  • 24 Desember 2011

DVORA YANOW [There is a saying] I heard often in prison, “if you treat a man human, he’ll treat you human.” The staff and prisoners treated me human, and I tried to do the same. —Ann Chih Lin (2000, 189) The methods of accessing or generating and analyzing data used today in meaning-focused re- search study both meaning and the artifacts that embody and convey it. Interpretive science’s appreciation for the multiplicities of possible meaning

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  • 24 Desember 2011

DVORA YANOW Neither phenomenology nor hermeneutics engages methods directly (although qualitative meth- ods journal articles and textbooks are starting to discuss “phenomenological research design” and “hermeneutic research methods”). As social philosophies, their concerns were (and continue to be) directly with ontological and epistemological matters. But the orientations of both, and espe- cially their ontological and epistemological questions

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