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The Way of Life : Suku Baduy as a Cultural Interest

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by : Halwany Microb

Foreword

The Organizing Committee of ASEAN Writers Workshop: Essay, December 10-20, 1996 has paid a lot attention to the life and culture of Baduy (south Banten). This attention is realized in the efforts of the government in developing and conserving the ecology and society of Baduy in such activities, i.e. environment protection, scientific research and constructing public facilities for the visitors to Kanekes, Rangkasbitung.

The positive result of those efforts is observable in the increasing number of visitors to Lebak Regency, especially to study the traditional society of Baduy at Lewidamar subdistrict, either for introduction to life and culture or just sight-seeing visit. The number of visitors possibly increases due to the better transportation infra-structure for visiting south Banten. This case is always monitored by Tourist Department DIPARDA of Lebak Regency at Rangkasbitung. It is already needed to publish a guide book in providing information about the cultural and historical heritage of Baduy.

To fulfill its aims, the ASEAN Organizing Committee in cooperation with the Tourist Department DIPARDA of Lebak Regency, particularly in term of financial aids for the development of Baduy society, Mr. Halwany Michrob, M.Sc has a lot attention to write and publish a book entitied “The way of Life: Suku Baduy as a Culture Interest”. This book will explain briefly the historic preservation and the knowledge of Baduy society.

Herewith, we would like to express our special thanks to Mr. Halwany Michrob, M.Sc. and to Bupati/Head of Regency, without their financial support our aim to publish this book will never possible. We hope this publication will be beneficial for all member of ASEAN participants and societies who eagerly want to know better about the historical society and cultural activities of Baduy. Any incompleteness in the presentation of data would be revised on the next edition.

A Guide to Baduy

Banten Area

Banten is one of the areas which are located in West Java in the Indonesian Archipelago. This area borders on: the Java Sea in the north, the Sunda Strait in the west, the Jakarta Special Territory and the regency of Bogor in the east,the Indonesian Ocean in the south. Banten consists of 4 regencies (now 8 regencies include 4 city administrative (ed.)): the regency of Serang, the regency of Pandeglang, the regency of Tangerang and the regency of Lebak; with 74 districts and 786 villages. In the regency of Lebak, which consists of 15 districts, there are places that belong to the isolated-group, “Suku Baduy”, called “Kanekes”.

The Indonesian government recently lined the Baduy zone, that is:

in the north : Ciboleger village (as the gate of the Baduy zone village, is accessible by pemission given by Pu’un). in the west: Kroya village. in the south: Cikotok and Citorek villages. The Baduy zone is also divided into “Baduy Dalam”(inner Badui) and “Baduy Luar” (outer Badui), that is:

a.The Baduy Dalam zone:

l.Cikeusik village

2.Cikartawana village and

3.Cibeo village.

b. The Baduy Luar zone, among others comprises:

1.Cisimeut village

2.Leuwidamar village

3.Cibungur village

4.Kaduketer village

5.Kaduketer village

6.Kanekes village.

The population data of the isolated-group, “Suku Baduy”, in the three villages in the regency of Lebak, are obtained by the writer from DR. Jul Jacobs’s manuscript which dated back to October 1888 that is:

a.Cikeusik village

Number of people in the 16 homes: 67, Women : 16, Girls : 21, Boys : 15, Heads of family: 15

b.Cikartawana village

Number of people in the 7 homes: 26, Women : 7, Widows : 2, Boys: 7,Girls : 5,Heads of family: 5

c.Cibeo village,Number of people in the 26 homes: 99,Women : 26,Widows: 6,Boys: 22,Girls: 25,Heads of family: 20

The number of the heads of family in the above three villages is always 40. When the number decrease, the Baduis have to take a substitute who is collected by Pu’un, for corpleting the 40.

In 1977 the Baduy population increased to 4077 in 39 villages and now there are 6000 people in 40 villages.

The Baduy community believe that reading a book writing, even keeping a written-paper and anything that is associated with education are “buyut” (=taboo). To them education means corrupting the mind and contaminating the soul. They would rather develop their instincts and intuitive power through meditation. However, they are relatively aware of the development of their country and know who their president is. They get the information from the Outer Badui community who have already become comparatively more permissive than the Baduy Dalam community.

Despite the lack of medicine as we know it,the Baduis have great belief in the healing powers of Pu’un or dukun. They usually cure someone of a disease by medicinal plants, such as: “boentiris leaves” (Kalanehoe pinnata) for the hot-fever disease; “honje beureum” (Elettaria pallida) for the cold-fever disease and ficus nivea (Artocarpoe) for the diarrhoea disease.

When someone in the Baduy community suffers from a contagious disease for which there is no cure, such as Smallpox and Tuberculosis, he has to fight the disease with prayers and meditation. They believe that Batara Tunggal decides on life and death and therefore, decides on the fate of each man.

The development of culture in one region will affect the life of the society as a unit. According to Prof. Harsojo (1979:18), the meaning of culture is:

“Kebudayaan adalah keseluruhan yang kompleks yang terkandung didalamnya ilmu pengetahuan, kepercayaan, kesenian, moral, hukum, adat istiadat dan kemampuan-kemampuan yang lain serta kebiasaan yang didapat oleh manusia sebagai anggota dari sesuatu masyarakat”. So, it is clear that culture comprises a lot of aspects of the life of the people. In spite of their similar figure to that of other tribes in West Java, the Baduy people have their own culture, very different from other cultures.

They have a sense of solid collaboration on strengthening and protecting their tradition, law, moral, languages and belief from the influence of the outside world. There are also some reasons for considering the Baduy community as an isolated-tribe, for example:

a.The Baduy zone is forbidden to outsiders, because they contend that the land is an inheritance from their ancestors.

b.Though this area belongs to Leuwidamar district, they do not want to admit the head of the district as leader of their community. However, the Baduy community has its own government system and social organization which is led by three Pu’uns in the three villages: Cikeusik, Cikartawana and Cibeo.

The Baduy community has also a religion that is called “Sunda Wiwitan” (The Early-Sunda). It is not Hinduism, Budhism, Christianity nor Islam; they are very faithful to the Almighty God “Batara Tunggal”. They believe that the fate of each man is decided, dominated and secured by their Supreme God, the “Batara Tunggal”. Batara medias “God” and tunggal means “the only”. So, Batara Tunggal is “The Only God”.

In Baduy Dalam, there are no churches, temples, mosques nor any buildings for worship. They only worship their ancestors in a sacred place called “Arca Domas”. The two words, “Arca” and “Domas”, mean “eight hundred”, perhaps referring to the 800 ascetics who fled from Islamization and who eventually chose Arca Domas as their burial ground.

“Arca Domas”,which lies near the upper reaches of the river Ciujung and the fiver Cisimeut, is considered a very holy place and guarded by “Sanghiang” (the invisible). “Arca Domas”, is a terraced hill that consists of 9 terraces, where there is a cemetery. On the top terrace there is one grave, on the third there are 5 graves, on the sixth 2 graves and “sasaka pangumbahan” (the source of both rivers) and the other terraces are empty.

They usually visit Arca Domas, where they believe their ancestors were buried, each year and the fifth month of their calender system and led by Pu’un. On the first day, they clean the graves and then on the second day they lay over food for their ancestors (sedekah). Through constant meditation, they communication with the soul of their ancestors to seek inspiration, guidance and advice.

In order to lead a noble life and die with a pure soul, the Baduy community has strict laws of tradition to maintain the comparatively higher moral standard. They have a list of “buyut” (taboos) that is somewhat similar to the “Ten Commandments”, that is:

1.do not kill.

2.do not steal.

3.do not lie.

4.do not get drunk.

5.do not sin.

6.do not eat anything in the middle of the night.

7.do not prepare any flowers for both perfume and decoration.

8.do not sleep on a bed. They wust sleep on the ground with a mat and the pillow containing wadding (not feathers) and dry banana leaves.

9.do not write, read a book, keep a written-paper, whistle of tune, sing a song, play music, play a drama and dance and anything that is associated with modern civilization.

10.do not receive gold or silver.

Yet,some part of Baduy community has begun to apply the rules less rigidly, for example, they receive some presents, ride in carriages and do other things that result from communication with the outside world.

They are known as the “Suku Baduy Luar” (Outer Badui). They consider the Baduy Dalam zone as a pure place and the centre of the whole Baduy zone. Therefore, only the Baduy people who can still execute the strict rules of the religion and tradition are permitted to live in the Inner Badui. In other words, the people of “Baduy Dalam” (=”Kajeroan zone”) who infringe on the rules of the religion and tradition, should leave the Kajeroan zone and settle down in “Baduy Luar” (“Panamping” zone) and are considered to have stained the holiness of the “Baduy Dalam”.

The Cultural Tourist Potensial og “SUKU BADUY”

Indonesia is famous for the friendliness of its people. Besides, there are many popular tourist resorts in this country. Most tourists who come to Indonesia are interested in its cultures and arts.

In this case the writer will try to describe the way of lafe of the “Suku Baduy”, because there are still a lot of people who do not know about them in detail, especially about the “Baduy Dalam” (inner Badui) and its way of life. The place where they live is also one of the tourist resorts and can be developed into cultural tourism, because this sub-ethnic group has its own culture and traditions.

This isolated-group lives in a complex of dwelling place near the upper reaches of the river Ciujung and the river Cisimeut. Its location is a long way from each other and is separated by hills and mountains. In their government system and social organization, the community is ruled by three Pu’uns who philosophize to “Tri Tangtu” (Tangtu Telu = three villages). Each of them has a function, as it is said by Saleh Danasasmita (1982:7):

“Ketiga orang Pu’un di ketiga tangtu (kampung), yaitu: Cikartawana (rama), Cikeusik (resi) dan Cibeo (prabu, ponggawa)”.

It is explained that each of the three Pu’uns has his own domain in three “tangtu” (=three villages), they are:

a.Cikeusik (Resi = Adjar = teacher)

b.Cikartawana (Prabu = king)

c.Cibeo (Rama = kokolot = the elder).

Each of them carries out different functions and complements towards one another because each of them is only a third of perfectness and so by no means compete with one another. The philosophy is that the Pu’un has to speak like a “Resi” (= teacher), to be dignified like a “Prabu”(= king) and to behave like a “Rama” (= kokolot = the elder). So, a Pu’un is a leader, guardian and even teacher for his people as reflected in his daily attitude, behaviour and words. They believe that the Pu’un is a pure descendant of Batara Tunggal. In addition a Pu’un has to have “Dasa Pasanta” (Ten Patiences) in order that all his orders will be carried out with good results, they are:

1. “Guna” (wisdom).

2. “Rama” (friendliness).

3. “Hook” (compassion).

4. “Pesok” (fascination).

5. “Asih” (affection).

6. “Karunya” (respectful).

7. “Mupreruk” (the ability to console).

8. “Ngulas” (the ability to praise).

9. “Nyecep” (the ability to quite down).

10. “Ngala angeun” (the ability to persuade).

To carry out the tasks, the Pu’un is assisted by several representatives,such as: “Jaro” (to lead the “Outer Badui community”) “Jaro-dangka” (to lead a wedding ceremony), “Tangkesan” (to predict the future) and “Girang Serat” (to lead other ceremonies which are associated with agricultural activities). In daily life, they live peacefully in a dwelling complex. No one speaks loudly, sings nor reads and no one even has a good time, such as watching television nor listening to the radio.

They stay in a very simple home that is made of bamboo and tied by wisps cf bamboo (no nails are used). Generally, in the morning the Baduy young girls go to the forest for “ngundeur” (to pluck the young leaves for, “lalab” or salad) and to indulge in small talks with their neighbours in the evening. Sometimes they help the men to work in the field. When night comes, the Baduis stay at home and no one goes out.

The Baduy women usually chew the “sirih” (betel-leaf) is filled with “apu” (sirih quid), “gambir” and “pinang” (areca palm). The Baduis do not have tobacco, because smoking is “buyut” (taboo) for them. When the Baduy men come back from the field, they usually perfom the “papairan”, that is, drinking water from the same “batok” (= coconut shell). They do not drink coffee. Even tea drinking is done outside the Baduy zone.

The Baduis clothes are white, blue and black. These colours strikingly distinguish between “Baduy Dalam” and “Baduy Luar”. The “Baduy Dalam” people wear white clothes and white “destar” (= head-cloth); and the “Baduy Luar” people wear black or blue clothes and black “destar”. The Baduy women’s clothes are not different from the men’s. Women wear “kemben” (= breast-cloth) and knee-deep long-dresses and they do not wear a “destar”. The tools they use for eating and drinking are only cups left to them by their ancestors. There are no dishes, glasses, spoons, forks nor furniture that are associated with modern civilization.

The Inner Badui community lives on plants such as: rice, vegetables, fruits etc. which are planted in the “huma” (dry farm land). Their staple diet consists mainly of natural-foods: rice, vegetables, eggs, honey and coconuts. They do not eat beef, pork, river-fish except “peda” (a kind of salted fish) and buffalo-meal and mutton. They may eat venison of rusa and kijang.

At the rice-planting and harvesting-time, they perform rituals which are named “Kawalu” to express their thanks to the Almighty God “Batara Tunggal”. The ceremonies are:

a. Kawalu Mitembey (-an – the writer’s note).

b. Kawalu Tengah.

c. Kawalu Tutug.

d. Pesta Laksa (Laksa feast).

These are based on the fact which has been said byDR. Jul Jacobs (1891: 33):

“De voornaamste en waarschijnlijk de eenigste godsdienstige feesten die de Badoejs vieren:

l. de kawaloe mitembej (-an – the writer’s note)

2. de kawaloe tengah

3. de kawaloe toetoeg

4. de laksa-feest.

Daring cultivating, they do not drink because the cultivated-land is not to be touched Ily water that comes out of the people’s bodies:

The ceremonies which are also in readiness for “Lebaran” (=Seren Taun) are as follows:

a.The Kawalu Mitembey (-an)

The rice-planting ceremony is led by one they call”Girang Serat” (Tukang Melak = the Planter). The rice is always planted first in the “human of the Pu’un, ordinary Baduis are not allowed to plant their own rice before the Pu’un does. The preparation starts around the nineteenth day of the “Kapitu” month.

It is necessary to explain that the Baduis have estimated the position of the sun and the constellation to determine the length of the month which is 30 days; of the week is 7 days; and that of the year which is 12 months. The constellation consists of: “Girang”or “guru besar” (Orion), “Bintang timur” (Venus), “Kartika” (Pleiden); and “Pamahpalan badak”. The months are named: 1. Kasa; 2. Karo; 3. Katiga ; 4. Sapar; 5. Kalima; 6. Kaganep; 7. Kapitu; 8. Kadalapan; 9. Kasalapan 10. Kasapuluh; 11. Hapit Lemah; and 12. Hapit Kajoe.

All members of the villages sit cross-legged in the field while the “Tukang Melak” chants. At day break, Angklung players accompany the “Tukang Melak” to the “huma”. When they reach the plot, the music stops and they solemnly come near to “Pungpuhunan”, a small bamboo cottage where the goddess Dewi Sri dwells. The “Tukang Melak” then takes some betel-nuts to chew add mapill the juice at the sticks to be used for rice- printing.

To mark the start of the planting season, the “Tukang melak” takes a stained stick (= “aseuk”), digs a hole and plants two seeds of rice. After this ceremony, a representative from each Baduy family assists in sowing the seeds.

b. The Kawalu Tengah

The ceremony is held after harvesting time. Before the Kawalu Tengah,the Baduis fast. While the Pu’un isolates himself to ascetism in a cave near the upper reaches of the river Ciujung and Cisimeut for three days and three nights; waits for the inspiration from the Only God “Batara Tunggal”. When he has received the messages,he will hunt some living-animals for “Laksa ceremony”, such as: “mencek” (Cervulue Kuntjac), “peucang” (mouse-deer = Tragulus Javanicus), “soeoeh” (Pagurus species), “boe’oet” (Sciuras Plantani), “peusing” (Manis Brachyura), “hoerang” (river shrimps= Crangon species) and “laoek cinang” (a kind of fish).

The ceremony begins by serving various sticky rice foods (ketan), such as: “ketan siang”, “ketan putri”, “ketan buis” and “ketan hideung”. After the ceremony, in the evening the Baduis relax in their “bale” (a couch) and sing “pantun” (a poem) accompanied by the “Kecapi” (a lute).

c.The Kawalu Tutug

The ceremony is tidying up the agricultural implements and storing them in a barn (“lumbung”).

d.The Laksa feast

The ceremony is held three days after tidying agricultural implements. It is started off by women who stamp on the rice contained in the “big dangka” and then make the rice into flour. The seven women are specially to selected by the Pu’un, to mix the flour with half of the meat of the hunted animals and then make a big doll to worship. The method of making the big doll is as follows: the eyes and brows are paint d with charcoal, the lips with animal blood and palm-fibre is used for the hair. When completed, the big doll is seated and guarded by animals such as: a big spider and a river-shrimp (on the left and right); and by a small doll which is made of dry banana leaves (in front of it). Afterwards, the celebration begins when some kinds of “ketan” and the other half of the meat of the hunted animals are served.

The Seba

The following ritual, is named the “Seba ceremony”. Probably, it is the only traditional ceremony that can be seen by outsiders and performed outside the Badui zone.

The Seba is perfomed by the seven “Jaro” (the consul of Pu’un in the Inner Badui). They walk from their own zone to the outside Badui zone. They pay the “upeti” (tribute) and bring the yield and other delicacies to the “Camat” (head of the district), “Wedana” (chief of the district above, Camat), “Bupati” (regent) and “Residen” (resident). The ceremony is performed each year after the “Kawalu”. The Seba ceremony is executed in accordance with the Badui’s ancestral tradition who had paid “upeti” (tribute) and bring the yield and other delicacies to the Sultans of Banten as a sign of their obedience toward the Sultan of Lebak Parahiangan (Banten). They hope that the rule made by their leader and ancestors will be respected by the government. The ceremony is also a means of communication between the Indonesian government and the “Baduy Dalam” community who are forbidden to visit the outside world. So, they can bring their problem to the government to be solved.

It is clear to us that the problems that may rise between them and the government, should not be solves by force but they want to solve tho problem by discussion.

The Wedding

In this part the writer will describe the custom of the “Suku Baduy” in their wedding ceremony. This custom has been practised since the time of their ancestors to the present time.

The Baduy community is severely against adultery which is considered to stain their respectability and moral values. To avoid adultery, they are forbidden to perform the forced marriage and to marry someone under the age of 15. However, there are rarely sexual offences among the young people. They are commonly more indulgent. Whenever a man commits adultery he, of course, is punished by banishment for life without any personal resentment. Until he is aware of his mistake and lives a good respectable life, the Pu’un will not allow him to return to his home.

The wedding ceremony in their community is somewhat similar to other Sundanese wedding ceremony. In the Baduy community incestuous marriages are severely forbidden. They are not allowed to take a second wife or husband or to predate an older sister nor an older brother in marriage, except, when a present is given to them. The uniqueness of the Badui’s people is that they will always remain faithful to their wives or husbands and remember long after they die. They rarely remarry.

The wedding ceremony is only permitted by the Pu’un and led by “Jaro-dangka”. The ceremony is performed on the fifth and the sixth of the month. The wedding ceremony is as follows:

When a boy in the Baduy community first sets eyes on a girls, he must send “sirih” (betel leaves) to her family. When the parcel is received by them, it means that his proposal is accepted by the girl herself and by her family as well. Before getting married, they have to be engaged for two months and the weddings day is decided by the Pu’un. On the wedding day, his father comes to the Pu’un’s place, where the bride stays. Later, the bridegroom prays infront of Pu’un and receives the bride through the Pu’un’s hand. After this, they perform the “huap lingkup”, that is the bride and the bridegroom feed each other symbolizing that they need each other in maintaining the family. Finally, they all together begin to eat the food.

The Art

As we all know, every tribe has its own arts; so the Baduy community has also its own arts. The traditional arts of Baduy tribe have some similarities to the arts in Banten, for example debus, reog-ogel, ujungan, angklung and calung. The instruments have been used for spreading the teaching of Islam. Up to now, the arts have been preserved and known as the specific arts of the Banten people.

Actually, among the traditional arts of Baduy community there are musical instruments like: angklung, calung, kecapi and tarawangsa. But the Baduis have used them in the daily ritual and they are not allowed to use other instruments. In this part, the writer would like to explain the art forms one by one.

The Angklung

The Angklung is a musical instrument made of several bamboos forming the yellow and the green pole. The instrument is somewhat different from the Angklung of Priangan, the instrument consists of: indung gede, lengkung, gunjung, sengklok, indung leutik and tarolok roel. The instrument is used in rice- planting ceremony, harvesting ceremony, wedding and “khitanan” ceremonies. They believe that the seeds of rice will grow into fertile rice if it is accompanied by the Angklung.

The Angklung usually begins with a group of children laughing and dancing, each of them holding the instrument and bursting out into the square. Two girls then follow behind, holding incense burners from which belch forth clouds of sweet-smelling smoke. Behind the girls come two young men, carrying on their shoulders a kind of sedan-chair upon which sits, quiet and dignified, a small boy dressed in ceremonial finery,into the boisterous laughter and general merriment and then join in the singing accompanied by the Angklung. At the end of the singing and the playing, the children let out a cry.

The Calung

The Calung is made of bamboo and played in the Kawalu ceremony (the rice-planting). Usually, the instrument is played together with Tarawangsa.

The Kecapi

The Kecapi is made of wood and is a kind of floor zither. It has seven strings stretched on wooden sound-box which acts as a resonance chamber. The instrument is played in the night time. When the Baduy community are going to sleep. It is always played to accompany the “Pantun” (poem).

The Tarawangsa

The Tarawangsa is made of a kind of bow which has two strings. The Tarawangsa is usually played together with the Calung. The Tarawangsa is played in the rice-planting ceremony when they go to the dry field.

The Funeral

The Baduis believe that a dead man is the natural result that is managed by Batara Tunggal. They do not believe in the re- incarnation as they do in Hinduism. They believe when someone in “Inner Badui” dies, the soul will be leaving the body and going to Arca Domas directly; the holy place where their ancestors were buried.

The soul of a righteous man directly goes to the “Swargaloka” (Lemah bodas = white valley) after seven days in the grave and the soul of a sinful man finally goes to “Swargaloka”, after forty days in hell.

The Baduy community usually holds a religious thanksgiving meal, on the first day, the third day, the seventh day and fortieth day of death. They bring some foods such as: rice, vegetables and young leaves, meat, salt etc. to the grave on the third, the seventh and the fortieth day. And on the seventh day, they lay out food in the forest, the place wyhere the corpse is bathed. It is “buyut” (taboo) for them to do their daily-work on the fifteenth and the thirtieth day.

The process of handling the corpse of the dead man is usually done as follows:

- The corpse is laid on the mat and “kokolo”, (the elder) prays the “mantera” to the Bhatara Tungggal who summons the soul of the deadman into the eternal resting-place.

- Then the dead man’s family shroud the body in white cotton and burn an incense (the sweet smelling smoke takes the spirit of the dead man), the incense consists of:

a. dried dukuh peels.

b.wood from the “gayoe” tree.

c.dry roots from “yamaka” tree.

- “Kokolot” cleans the corpse in the forest, while paying the “mantera” as follows:

“Poehatji balak-bakan djati ngaran sasak tjai,

Poehatji keliran djati ngaran sisi tjai,

Poehatji unggulan djati ngaran batu,

Poehatji tasik manik ngaran keusik,

Poehatji leungsaran djati dasar tjai,

Sang Mukeji ngaran tjai,

Sang Ratu kerepek sejak ngaran paroemly,

Sang Ratu anggara mana ngaran nyawa tjai,

Bersih badan sampoerna”.

While the “Kokolot” is praying, some people dig a hole to make a grave. Its standard size is the size of a man’s body and half the size of a man’s body for children.

-After the corpse is cleaned, it is shrouded in white cotton and laid on a bamboo-bier in the cross-handed position.

-They carry the corpse to the grave and bury it with its head facingthe west and the face towards the south, and then the “Kokolot” prays after covering the body with earth:

“Ong, ilahing kaditoe ulah teu puguh ngadjungdjungan, kaditoe kakawoeng anoe ngaloewoek, ka kalapa noe ngadjadjar, ka djambe noe ngaberes, ka sigalepeng hideung”.

-For the final homaging ritual to a dead man, they each cut off the branch of the “Hanjuang” tree (= Calodracon Yacquinie) and then, beat the grave and stick the branches into the head and foot of the grave.

But if the dead man is a Pu’un, so that the corpse is taken care of by Serat, Kokolot and a group of religious people. They bring out the corpse and no one among the ordinary Baduis can touch it. The burial of Pu’un is done by two Pu’uns and the grave has to be in a higher position than the others.

Bibliographies

Agus Aris Munandar. 1985 “Baduy: Sebuah Masyarakat Sederhana di Banten Selatan”. Romantika Arkeologi, 25, VII.

Boedihartono.1985 “Baduy: Yang Mencoba Bertahan dari Pergeseran”. Majalah Mutiara, 342, XVIII.

Garna, Judistira.1985 “Masyarmat Baduy dan Siliwangi: Menurut anggapan orang-orang Baduy masa kini”, Seminar Sejarah dan Tradisi tentang Prabu Silihwangi, Bandung.

Geise, N. J. C. 1985 “Tinjauan Kritis tentang Masyarakat Baduy dan Kaitannya dengan Siliwangi”. Seminar Sejarah dan Tradisi tentang Prabu Silihwangi, Bandung.

Meijer dan Jacobs. 1891 De Badoeis

Michrob, Halwany. 1985 Tradisi Sosial dan Budaya Masyarakat Baduy di Banten Selatan (Jawa Barat).

Kruseman, C.A. 1889 Cenioe Oogen onder de Badoewies, Batavia.

Van Tricht, B. 1929 “Levende Antiquiteiten in West Java”, Majalah DJAWA.

Prio Widiyono.1984 “Laporan Perjalanan ke Daerah Baduy, Banten Selatan dan Sukabumi Selatan”. Keluarga Mahasiswa Arkeologi Fakultas Sastera Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta.

Halwany Michrob In ASEAN WRITERS WORKSHOP: ESSAY,December 10-20, 1996 Jakarta, Indonesia

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