TIME-LINE CRONOLOGY OF IMPERIAL ROME AND RELATED HISTORY

ROMAN “IMPERIAL” PERIOD 27 BC to 565 AD

27 BC -14 AD Caesar AUGUSTUS (Octavian) – Emperor (Julio-Claudian ) Grandnephew of Julius Caesar

27 BC Pantheon built for the first time under Agrippa

26 BC The “Pax Romana”, the 200 years of “Roman Peace” begins and comes to an end c.180 AD

22 BC City and port of Caesarea completed by Herod as seat of Roman Government in Palestine

20 BC Herod begins reconstruction of Temple (third) on Mount Moriah at Jerusalem

19 BC May 12 Temple of Marsulator dedicated on Capitoline Hill

12-9 BC Romans conquer Germany as far as the Elbe River

10 BC Herod dedicates restoration of the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem

6 BC Postulated year for Birth of Jesus Christ, probably on April 17, when Jupiter was “In the East”, as a morning star, and was being eclipsed by the Moon and was in close conjunction with Venus; in the constellation “Ares” (the Ram representing Judea); indicating to ancient astrologers, the birth of a King, or person of importance in Judea. See DateYearTime for further explanation

4 BC Death of “Herod the Great”, Governor of Palestine for Rome

2 BC May 12 The Forum of Augustus is dedicated

1 BC June 23 – Traditional date for Birth of John the Baptist

1 BC Roman Year 753 AUC See DateYearTime for further explanation

1 AD Roman Year 754 AUC See DateYearTime for further explanation

4 AD Feb-21 Death of Gaius Caesar, son of Augustus and hoped for successor to Augustus

6 AD Dedication of the Temple of Castor & Pollux by future Emperor Tiberius

9 AD Three Legions (XVII-XVIII-XVIX, 25,000) under Varus, wiped-out in Tuetoburger Vald (forest) in Germany by Cherusci forces (30,000+) under command of Arminius Herrman – Varus commits suicide and the Roman Frontier is pulled-back to the Rhine River

9 AD Wang Mang deposes Han Dynasty in China

10 AD City of Rome boasts a population of one million. Not until London in 1850’s will another city have a population of one million.

14-37 TIBERIUS Claudius Nero – Emperor (Julio-Claudian) Stepson of Augustus

14 Pont du Gard Viaduct near Nimes, France is completed

17 May 26 Germanicus celebrates German victories

17 Death of LIVY (Titus Livius born 59 BC) Great Roman Historian

c. 23 Birth of PLINY the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, died 79 AD) Roman Naturalist and Historian; in Como, in the Po Valley near Swiss border

25 Han Dynasty in China is restored

26 Jesus chooses 12 disciples and commences his ministry

30 April 7 A postulated date Jesus Christ is crucified, however, April 3, 33 is considered to be the more correct date

33 April 3 The postulated and deemed to be more correct date of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion

36 Birth of Flavius JOSEPHUS (died c.94) Great Jewish Historian and soldier

37 Death of Tiberius at Misenum

37 Birth of future Emperor Nero

39 Birth of Future Emperor Titus

37-41 Gaius Caesar Germanicus (CALIGULA) – Emperor (Julio-Claudian) Grandnephew of Tiberius

40 June 13 Birth of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who will later conquer Wales and Northern England

41 Murder of Emperor Caligula at Ludi Palatini and Claudius proclaimed Emperor by the Praetorian Guard

41-54 Tiberius CLAUDIUS Nero Germanicus – Emperor (Julio-Claudian) Uncle of Caligula

43 Battle of Medway River, near Rochester, Kent during Roman Conquest of Britain. Rome went on to secure Thames River crossing and captured Camulodunum (Colchester).

45 March 17 Julius Caesar defeats Pompey’s sons and Labienus at Munda

50 Claudius adopts future Emperor Nero

54-68 NERO Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus – Emperor (Julio-Claudian) Stepson of Claudius

63 Completion of Third (Herod’s) Temple in Jerusalem

63 Strong earthquake damages Pompeii and Herculaneum presaging the eventual eruption of Vesuvius in 79

64 Great Fire of Rome (wrongly attibuted to Nero) destroys 70% of the City, which allowed rebuilding and improvement of the City

c. 65 Bible Book of Mark of the New Testament is thought to have been written

66 Jewish zealots seize the mountaintop fortress at Masada in their revolt against Rome

68 Nero’s Golden Palace “Domus Aurea” completed

68 June 9 Nero commits suicide

68-69 Servius Sulpicius GALBA – Proclaimed Emperor by his solders

69 M. Salvius OTHO – Emperor – Military Commander

69 Aulus VITELLIUS – Emperor – Military Commander

69-79 T. Flavius Vespasianus (VESPASIAN) – Emperor (Flavian Dynasty) Military Commander

70 May 31 Titus captures 1st Wall of City of Jerusalem

70 Third (Herod’s) Temple destroyed by Romans during subjugation of Jewish rebels

70 July 1, Titus hailed as Emperor in Alexandria

72 Construction of the Flavian Amphitheater (the Colosseum) commences

72-73 Roman forces (7,000 Legion X and Auxiliaries) assault and overcome 1000 Jewish zealots in the mountain fortress of Masada on western shore of the Dead Sea in Palestine

77 Pliny the Elder produces first Roman encyclopedia; 37 books covering 35,000 subject from 4000 writers

79 Great Eruption of Vesuvius which buried and destroyed the Cities of Pompeii and nearby Herculaneum with fiery ash flows and killed PLINY the Elder (born 23 AD) Naturalist & Historian, who had come to investigate the eruption.

79 June 23 Death of Emperor Vespasian

79-81 TITUS Flavius Vespasianus – Emperor (Flavian Dynasty) Son of Vespasian

c. 80-85 Bible Books of Matthew and Luke of the New Testiment are thought to have been written

80 Flavian Amphitheater (the Colosseum, incomplete) is inaugurated with 100 days of festivities

81-96 T. Flavius Domitianus (DOMITIAN) – Emperor (Flavian Dynasty) Son of Vespasian

84 Battle of Mons (Mount) Graupius, n/w of Aberdeen, when Agricola and Roman Auxiliary forces (no Legions involved) gained control over Caledonia (northern Britain) from local tribes.

c. 90 Flavian Amphitheater (the Colosseum) is fully completed

c. 92 Bible Book of John of the New Testament is thought to have been written

c. 95 Bible Book Acts of the Apostles of the New Testament is thought to have been written as a sequel to Book of Luke.

96-98 M. Cocceius NERVA – Emperor (Adoptive) Elected Interim Ruler

98-117 Marcus Ulpius Traianus (TRAJAN) – First non-Italian Emperor – Adopted Son of Nerva

c.100 Death of Flavius JOSEPHUS (born 37AD) Great Jewish Historian and soldier

c.100 Seismagraph developed in China

101-102 First Dacian War

105-107 Second Dacian War

109 June 23 – The Aqua Traiana aquducts into Rome are officially dedicated

112 Trajan’s Forum completed

113 Trajan’s Column erected, relating exploits of the Dacian Wars (101-102 & 105-107 AD)

113 May 12 Restored Temple of Venus Genetrix is dedicated

117 May 26 Trajan returns to Rome after Dacian victories

117-138 P. Aelius Hadrianus (HADRIAN) – Emperor – Ward of Trajan

121 April 26 Birth of Marcus Aurelius

122 Emperor Hadrian visits Britain – plans construction of wall across northern Britain and returns to Rome

123 Hadrian’s Wall construction by Roman Legions begins

123 Pantheon (origins 27-25 BC – Agrippa) reconstructed by Hadrian

135 Emperor Hadrian puts down Second Jewish Revolt, bans Jews from Jerusalem, rebuilds the City and renames it Aelia Capitolina – Judea becomes the Roman Province Syria Palaestina (Palestine)

136 March 17 Future emperor Marcus Aurelius dons the Toga Virilis (of adulthood)

138 Hadrian adopts future Emperor Antoninis Pius

138-161 T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (ANTONINUS PIUS) – Emperor – Adopted by Hadrian

c150 Hadrian’s Wall completed – 80 roman (4884 ft) miles, 74 modern (5280 ft) miles long

180 March 17 Death of Marcus Aurelius at Bononia

161-180 Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus (MARCUS AURELIUS) – Emperor – Adopted by Antoninus Pius

161-190 Golden Age of the Roman Empire under Marcus Aurlius and Commodus

161-169 L. Aurelius Verus (LUCIUS VERUS) – Associate Emperor – Adopted by Antoninus Pius – served with Marcus Aurelius

176 Column of Marcus Aurelius begun (completed by Commodus)

180-192 L. Aurelius COMMODUS – Emperor – Son of Marcus Aurelius

c.180 The “Pax Romana”, the “Roman Peace” ends 200 years after its beginning c.26 BC

c.190 General Decline of the Roman Empire begins

c.190 The Germanic Goths of Scandinavian origin, migrate to the shores of the Black Sea

193 P. Helvius PERTINAX – Proclaimed Emperor by the Praetorian Guard

193 M. DIDIUS JULIANUS – Emperor – Bought office from Praetorian Guard

193-194 G. PESCENNIUS NIGER – Emperor

193-197 Decimus CLODIUS ALBINUS – Emperor

193-211 Lucius SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS – Proclaimed Emperor (Severen Dynasty)

196 Septimius Severus gaines control of Byzantium, later (330) Constantinople, now (1930) Istanbul

197 Septimius Severus lifts ban on marriage for legionary solders

203 Arch of Septimuius Severus erected

203 Emperor Septimus Severus constructs large hippodrome (gr. hippos (‘ιππος), horse, and dromos (δρομος) path or way) in Constantinople for chariot and horse races.

c. 210 Adoption of “Old” (Mosaic Covenant, “Scriptures”) and “New” (Covenant of Christ) for the two Testament divisions of the Bible.

211 Death of Severus – His son Carracalla assumes title of Pontifex Maximus

211-217 M. Aurelius Antoninus (CARACALLA) – Emperor (Severen Dynasty) Son of Severus

211-212 P. Septimius GETA – Emperor (Severen Dynasty) Son of Severus, ruled jointly with Caracalla

217 Colosseum gutted by fire and is refurbished

217-218 M. Opellius MACRINUS – Proclaimed Emperor by his solders (Severen Dynasty)

218-222 M. Aurelius Antoninus (ELAGABALUS) – Emperor (Severen Dynasty) Cousin of Caracalla

222-235 M. Aurelius SEVERUS ALEXANDER – Emperor (Servern Dynasty) Cousin of Elagabalus

c. 325 Emperor Constantine renovates and enlarges the “Severus” hippodrome (gr. hippos (‘ιππος), horse, and dromos (δρομος) path or way) in Constantinople to be 450′ long, 350′ wide, 130′ high equal in size to 15 football fields and seating over 100,000 people.

235-238 G. Julius Verus MAXIMINUS – Proclaimed Emperor by his solders

238 GORDIAN-I – Made Emperor by the Senate

238 GORDIAN-II – Son of Gordian-I ruled jointly with his father

238 Balbinus – Elected Joint Emperor by the Senate

238 Pupienus Maximus – Elected Joint Emperor with Balbinus by the Senate

238 May 10 Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus, Thracian Emperor is murdered

238-244 M. Antonius Gordianus (GORDIAN III) – Emperor – Son of Gordian-II

244-249 M. Julius Philippus (PHILIP the Arabian) – Emperor – Assassin of Gordian-III

247 The Goths begin to harrass and raid the outer provinces of the Roman Empire

249-251 G. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius (TRAJAN DECIUS) – Proclaimed Emperor by his solders

251 Goths defeat and kill Emperor Decius at Abrittus, Mosea Inferior (west coast of Black Sea)

251 HOSTILIANUS – Son of Decius – Colleague of Gallus

251-253 G. Vibius TREBONIANUS GALLUS – Emperor – Military Commander

253-260 P. Licinius Valerianus (VALERIAN) – Emperor – Military Commander

253-268 P. Licinius Egnatius GALLIENUS – Co-Emperor later sole Emperor – Son of Valerian

259-268 M. Cassianius Latinius POSTUMUS – Emperor (Gallic) Assassinated

260 Gallic Empire of Gaul (France), and later Britain and Spain, created after revolt by Postumus, Governor of Lower Germany

260 Emperor Valerian captured by Persians at Edessa, Mesopotamia

260 Persians sack Antioch – Franks sack Tarraco (east coast of Spain)

262 Ephesus (modern Kucuk Menderes, W. Turkey) sacked by the Goths and the great Temple of Diana (Artemis) is destroyed.

268-270 M. Piavonius VICTORINUS – Emperor (Gallic-Germany)

268-270 M. Aurelius CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS) – Emperor (Illyrian) – Military Commander

268 Goths and Heruli sack Athens – Gallienus defeats Goths at Naissus, Moesia Superior (Balkans)

269 Spanish Provinces return to Roman allegiance

270 Traditional date for the beheading of St. Valentine

270-273 G. Pius Esuvius TETRICUS – Emperor (Gallic)

270-275 L. Domitius Aurelianus (AULERIAN) – Emperor (Illyrian) Chosen by Claudius-II as successor

271-275 Aurelian Walls around Rome (perimeter 12 miles) constructed due to the menace of barbarian invasion

272 Romans abandon Dacia

273 Gallic Empire territories re-absorbed into Western Roman Empire after Battle of Chalon-sur-Marne (Belgium)

273 Revolt by City of Palmyra put-down as Rome reclaims control of Persia

275-276 M. Claudius TACITUS – Emperor (Illyrian) Chosen by the Senate

276-282 M. Aurelius PROBUS – Emperor (Illyrian) Military Commander

282-283 M. Aurelius CARUS – Proclaimed Emperor (Illyrian) by the Praetorian Guard

283-284 M. Aurelius Numerius Numerianus (NUMERIAN) – Emperor (Illyrian) Son of Carus

283-285 M. Aurelius CARINUS – Emperor (Illyrian) Son of Carus

284-305 G. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (DIOCLETIAN) – Emperor (Illyrian, Tetrarchy-Senior-East)

284 Diocletian institutes new calender – in use until gradual adoption of BC-AD calendar of 532 AD

286-305 M. Aurelius Valerius MAXIMIANUS – Emperor (Tetrarchy-Senior-West)

293 Tetrarchy System of Senior and Junior Emperors in the West and the East established

c. 300 Evidence of embalming or artificial mummification in Roman Greece

301 Diocletian issues edict on maximum prices in attempt to check inflation

303 Great Persecution of Diocletian begins in Nicomedia

305 May 1 Diocletian voluntarily abdicates, forcing Maximianus to do so as well

305-306 Flavius Valerius CONSTANTIUS – Emperor (Tetrarchy-West)

305-311 C. GALERIUS Valerius Maximianus – Emperor (Tetrarchy-East)

306-312 M. Aurelius Valerius MAXENTIUS – Usurper (Tetrarchy-West) – Son of Maximianus

307 Maxentius begins construction of his Basilca on the north boundary of the Roman Forum; later finished by Constantine after his defeat of Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in 312

308-313 MAXIMIN – Co-Emperor – Nephew of Galerius

308-324 C. Valerius Licinianus LICINUS – Emperor (Tetrarchy-East) Appointed by Galerius as Emperor in the West later became Emperor of the East

312 October, Battle of Milvian Bridge (Saxa Rubra “Red Stones”) where Constantine defeated Maxentius to become the sole ruler of Rome

312-337 CONSTANTINE, I “The Great” – Sole Emperor after 324 AD – Son of Constantius

313 Constantine convenes the Synod of Rome at the request of Christian bishops to deal with Donatism

313 Edict for Toleration of Christianity issued by Eastern Emperor Licinus

315 Arch of Constantine erected to celebrate his victory over Maxentius in 312

316 Constantine’s Edict of Milan declares a tolerance for the practice of the Christian Religion within the Empire and omits pagan ceremonies

c. 318 Constantine declares December 25th – then celebrated as the feast of the Winter Solstice and the birth of Mithras, the Persian god of renewal – as the Birth Date of Jesus Christ in an effort to establish Christianity over paganism. Dec-25th was officially decreed as the Birth of Christ by Pope Julius in 349.

321 Constantine moves the Christian Sabbath Day from Saturday to Sunday due to Christ’s Resurrection having been on a Sunday.

c. 322 1st St.Peter’s Church in Rome and churches over Holy Places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem constructed

c. 322 Riding Stirrups in use in China

323 Constantine issues edict abolishing gladiatorial combat; but is unable to completely suppress the games

325 First Council of Nicaea, the first ever ecumenical conclave, decrees Easter to be the Sunday following the first full moon after the Vernal Equinox, set Dec-25 as the date for Christus Natalis (Christmas), fixed the dates of important Christian Festivals and establishes the New Testament Canon as we know it today

c. 326 Constantine’s mother Helena makes pilgrimage to Jeruselem, founds Church of Holy Sepulchre and searches for the True Cross.

330 Byzantium is renamed Constantinople and established as the capitol of Eastern Roman Empire

332 Creation of the “Constantine Christian Bible” by Bishop Eusebius, consisting of 18 books selected by Emperor Constantine with 50 copies produced.

c.336 Dedication of the first Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem

337 May 22 Constantine the Great dies, proclaiming himself the 13th Apostle. He was baptized a Christian shortly before his death, but not on his death bed as rumored.

337-340 Flavius Claudius Constantinus (CONSTANTINE, II ) – Co-Emperor – Son of Constantine-I

337-350 Flavius Julius CONSTANS – Co-Emperor – Son of of Constantine-I

337-361 Flavius Julius CONSTANTIUS ( II ) – Co-Emperor – Son of Constantine-I

342 Imperial Edict prohibits public sacrifices

349 Pope Julius officially decrees December 25th as the date to celebrate Christmas as the Feast of the Nativity. This date had originally been declared as the Birth date of Christ by Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 318.

350-353 Flavius Magnus MAGNENTIUS – Usurper in the West of Constans’ throne

356 Pagan Cult Practices banned by Imperial Decree

356 First recorded use of anesthesia for surgery occurs in the Orient

c. 360 Romans close the great Egyptian Temple at Karnak – Ethiopia becomes first country-nation to fully adopt Christianity

360 Original Hagia Sophia Church dedicated in Constantinople

360-363 Flavius Claudius Julianus (JULIAN “The Apostate” – Emperor – Nephew of Constantine-I

363 Julian murdered – Paganism restored and Pagan Cults tolerated by Imperial Legislation

363-364 Flavius Jovianus (JOVIAN) – Elected Emperor by the Army – restores Christianity as favored religion

364-375 Flavius Valentinianus (VALENTINIAN, I ) – Proclaimed Emperor-West by the Army

364-378 Flavius VALENS – Emperor-East (House Valentinain) – Brother of Valentinian-I

367 Present New Testament Bible Canon of 27 Books written in Koine’ idiom of Greek comes into use.

c. 372 The Huns from north-central Asia invade the lower Volga Valley and advance westward, driving the Germanic Ostrogoths and Visagoths before them, leading to the great migrations that lead to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire that changed the face of Europe.

376 The “Goths” (Visagoths “Wise Goths” & Ostro Goths “Bright Goths) appear on the lower Danube River frontier of Roman Empire

378, 9 Aug – Roman Army under Valens, destroyed (40,000 killed) by Visagoth-Ostrogoth forces in Battle of Adrianople on the Greek and Bulgarian frontiers. This battle demonstrated the superiority of calvery over infantry that would last for the next thousand years.

375-383 Flavius Gratianus (GRATIAN) – Emperor-West (House Valentinain) – Son of Valentinian-I

379-395 Flavius THEODOSIUS- I “The Great” – Appointed Emperor-East (House Valentinian) by Gratian

380 Theodosius and Gratian declare Christianity to be the Official Religion of the Empire

383-388 MAGNUS MAXIMUS – Usurper in the West (House Valentinian)

388-392 Valentinianus (VALENTINIAN, II ) – Emperor – Son of Valentinian-I0

391 All Pagan sacrifices outlawed by Theodosius

392 May 15 Valentinianus II is murdered

392-394 EUGENIUS – Usurper in the West (House Valentinian)

394-395 THEODOSIUS, I – Sole Emperor and the Last Ruler of the United (east & west) Roman Empire

394 Battle of Frigidus where Theodosius crushed Pagan inspired forces of the West

394 Theododius bans the Olympic Games as they were considered a pagen ritual. The Games are believed to have continued for a time; but finally ceased circa 500 until the modern Olympic Games begin in 1896.

394 Alter of Victory removed for the final time from the Senate Curia as it was then viewed as a symbol of paganism – Disposition unknown

394 Eternal Flame of Rome allowed to die-out after more than 1000 years

395 Edict of Theodosius mandates under pain of death that Christianity be the only religion of the Roman Empire

c. 395 The “Vulgate” (common edition), the original latin version of the Bible is prepared by St. Jerome at request of Pope St. Damasus-I. In 1546 it will be adopted as the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church.

395 Sparta sacked by the Goths

395-402 ARCADIUS – Emperor-East (House Theodosius) – Son of Theodosius-I

395-423 HONORIUS – Emperor-West (House Theodosius) – Son of Theodosius-I

402-450 THEODOSIUS II – Emperor-East – Son of Arcadius

404 Emperor Honorius permanently bans gladitorial games and combat

404 Original Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople destroyed by fire

406-450 Archer calvary of Attila the Hun using recurve compound bows, conquers most of Europe until defeated at Chalons in 451

410 Visagoths under Alaric sack Rome placing Attalus on the throne as Emperor

410 Rome abandons Britain after a presence of 350 years

415 Hagia Sophia Church restored by Theodosius-II after fire of 404

421 CONSTANTIUS-III – Named Joint-Emperor by Honorius

423-425 JOHANNES – Emperor-West

424-455 Placidius Valentinanus (VALENTINIAN, III ) Emperor-West – Nephew of Honorius – Son of Constantius-III

426 The Olympic Games Shrine at Olympia in Greece is burned and destroyed as a vestige of paganism

432 Emperor Theodosius forced to pay tribute to invading Huns from north central Asia

438 Roman Legal Code “Codex Theodosianus” issued by Theodosius-II, Emperor of the East to reduce and systematize the complex mass of law issued since the reign of Constantine-I

c. 450 Stirrups introduced into Europe by the invading Huns

450 Rome refuses further tribute to the Huns, who then invade Italy and Gaul

450-457 MARCIAN – Emperor-East – Brother-in-Law of Theodosius-II

451 Huns defeated at Chalons (Mery-sur-Seine, north of Troyes, France) by Roman General Aetius. The Huns, however, ravage Italy and Gaul before withdrawing after Attila’s death in 453

453 Attila, leader of the Huns, dies

455 Petronius MAXIMUS – Emperor-West – bought office by bribery

455 Vandals, from Africa, under King Gaiseric sack Rome

455 May 31 Petronius Maximus, Senator/Emperor is lynched

455-456 AVITUS – Emperor-West – Placed in office by the Goths

457-461 Julius Maiorianus (MAJORIAN) – Puppet Emperor-West appointed by Ricimer

457-474 LEO-I – Chosen Emperor-East by the Senate

461 Traditional year of Saint Patrick’s death

461-465 Libius SEVERUS – Puppet Emperor-West appointed by Ricimer

467-472 Procopius ANTHEMIUS – Appointed Emperor-West by Ricimer and Leo-I

472 Anicius OLYBRIUS – Appointed Emperor-West by Ricimer

473-474 GLYCERIUS – Appointed Emperor-West by Leo-I

474-475 JULIUS NEPOS – Appointed Emperor-West by Leo-I

474-491 ZENO – Emperor-East

475-476 Romulus Augustus (AUGUSTULUS) – Last Emperor-West – put in office by Orestes his father and deposed by the Goths under Odoacer

476 Traditional Ending Date for the Western Roman Empire upon the deposing of Augustulus by the Goths

490-500 Battle of Mons (Mount) Badon, where King Arthur defeated Saxon leader Cerdic, which halted Saxon expansion in Britain for 50 years.

491-518 ANASTASIUS – Emperor-East

c. 500 Constantinople near 500,000 population

c. 514 Mayan city of Chichen Itza founded in central Yucatan, Mexico

518-527 JUSTIN, I – Emperor-East

523 Last recorded event using beasts in the Colosseum

c. 526 Christian Monk Dionysius Exiguus, “Dennis the Little”; in order to better determine the correct date of Easter, develops a new calendar based on his estimated year of when Christ was born and to standardize the chaotic methods for the numbering of years then in use. This new year sequence would become (in the 1500’s), our current BC-AD / BCE-CE system for numbering of years. The “Year-Zero” was not utilized, as the concept of a number value of “zero” did not exist in the roman-numeral system in use at that time. Consult Year-One – BC-AD for more details.

527-565 JUSTINIAN, I – Last Emperor-East (and of Classical Rome)

c. 527 Gothic seige of Vitage, which cut the aquaduct to City of Rome

528-529 Justinian purges Pagans from administration of Rome

529 Justinian restores Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem

529 Neoplatonic Philosophers of Athens migrate to Persia

532 Second Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople destroyed by fire, caused by a riot. The fire destroyed one third of the city.

534 “Corpus Juris Civilis” codex-caudex (tablet-ledger) of 1 million words issued by Justinian-I, based on the “Codex Theodosianus” issued by Theodosius-II, Emperor of the East in 438. The “Corpus Juris Civilis” became the basis of modern civil law.

535 Imperial Laws enacted against heretics, Jews and Pagans in North Africa

535 Postulated Super Volcanic eruption of Krakatau, many times greater than its great eruption in 1883 in the Java Straits, is thought to have split Java and Sumatra into the current two islands.

537 Third and current Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople dedicated

546 Second Purge of Pagans from Administration

546 Rome sacked – Belisarius retreats

550 Badvila establishes Ostrogothic power in Italy with Rome as capitol

END OF THE IMPERIAL ROME PERIOD

562 Third Purge of Pagans from Administation

SILAKAN BERI KOMENTAR

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